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chapter 3 ecology

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

The branch of biology dealing with interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment is called
a.
economy.
b.
modeling.
c.
recycling.
d.
ecology.
 

 2. 

Which of the following descriptions about the organization of an ecosystem is correct?
a.
Communities make up species, which make up populations.
b.
Populations make up species, which make up communities.
c.
Species make up communities, which make up populations.
d.
Species make up populations, which make up communities.
 

 3. 

The simplest grouping of more than one kind of organism in the biosphere is
a.
a population.
b.
a community.
c.
an ecosystem.
d.
a species.
 

 4. 

Plants are
a.
primary producers.
b.
primary consumers.
c.
herbivores.
d.
omnivores.
 
 
nar001-1.jpg

Figure 3–1
 

 5. 

The algae at the beginning of the food chain in Figure 3–1 are
a.
primary consumers.
b.
decomposers.
c.
primary producers.
d.
heterotrophs.
 

 6. 

How do most primary producers make their own food?
a.
by using light energy to make carbohydrates
b.
by using chemical energy to make carbohydrates
c.
by changing water into carbon dioxide
d.
by breaking down remains to make carbon dioxide
 

 7. 

All the interconnected feeding relationships in an ecosystem make up a food
a.
interaction.
b.
chain.
c.
network.
d.
web.
 

 8. 

The total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level is called the
a.
organic mass.
b.
trophic mass.
c.
energy mass.
d.
biomass.
 

 9. 

What is an ecological model of the relationships that form a network of complex feeding interactions among organisms in a community from producers to decomposers?
a.
food web
b.
ecosystem
c.
food chain
d.
population
 

 10. 

What animals eat both producers and consumers?
a.
herbivores
b.
omnivores
c.
chemotrophs
d.
autotrophs
 

 11. 

What is the term for each step in the transfer of energy and matter within a food web?
a.
energy path
b.
food chain
c.
trophic level
d.
food pyramid
 

 12. 

A bird stalks, kills, and then eats an insect. Based on its behavior, which pair of ecological terms describes the bird?
a.
herbivore, decomposer
b.
producer, heterotroph
c.
carnivore, consumer
d.
autotroph, herbivore
 
 
nar002-1.jpg
Figure 3–2
 

 13. 

What goes in Box 5 of the food web in Figure 3–2?
a.
herbivores
b.
scavengers
c.
carnivores
d.
decomposers
 

 14. 

Only 10 percent of the energy stored in an organism can be passed on to the next trophic level. Of the remaining energy, some is used for the organism’s life processes, and the rest is
a.
used in reproduction.
b.
stored as body tissue.
c.
stored as fat.
d.
eliminated as heat.
 

 15. 

A word that means the same thing as consumer is
a.
producer.
b.
autotroph.
c.
heterotroph.
d.
carbohydrate.
 

 16. 

Matter can recycle through the biosphere because
a.
matter does not change into new compounds.
b.
matter is assembled into chemical compounds.
c.
biological systems do not use up matter, they transform it.
d.
biological systems use only carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen.
 

 17. 

The repeated movement of water between Earth’s surface and the atmosphere is called
a.
the water cycle.
b.
the condensation cycle.
c.
precipitation.
d.
evaporation.
 
 
nar003-1.jpg
Figure 3–3
 

 18. 

What is happening to water at D in Figure 3–3?
a.
Water is falling to the ground as precipitation.
b.
Water is evaporating from the ocean.
c.
Water is being taken up by plants through transpiration.
d.
Water is seeping into the ground to become groundwater.
 

 19. 

Which part of Figure 3–3 shows transpiration?
a.
A on the left
b.
B on the left
c.
A on the right
d.
B on the right
 

 20. 

Carbon cycles through the biosphere in all of the following processes EXCEPT
a.
photosynthesis.
b.
transpiration.
c.
burning of fossil fuels.
d.
decomposition of plants and animals.
 

 21. 

Which part of the water cycle is a biological process?
a.
transpiration
b.
runoff
c.
precipitation
d.
condensation
 

 22. 

Nitrogen fixation is carried out primarily by
a.
humans.
b.
plants.
c.
bacteria.
d.
consumers.
 

 23. 

Organisms need nutrients in order to
a.
utilize hydrogen and oxygen.
b.
carry out essential life functions.
c.
recycle chemical compounds.
d.
carry out nitrogen fixation.
 

 24. 

Biogeochemical cycling ensures that
a.
human activity will have no effect on elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter.
b.
living organisms will not become limited in any one nutrient.
c.
nutrients will be circulated throughout the biosphere.
d.
many nutrients will not reach toxic concentrations in the biosphere.
 

 25. 

Animals that get energy by eating the carcasses of other animals that have been killed by predators or have died of natural causes are called
a.
scavengers.
b.
omnivores.
c.
heterotrophs.
d.
detritivores.
 

 26. 

Phosphorus is very important for living things because living organisms need phosphorus to
a.
make carbohydrates.
b.
form DNA and RNA.
c.
perform transpiration.
d.
cycle energy.
 

 27. 

Each of the following is an abiotic factor in the environment EXCEPT
a.
plant life.
b.
soil type.
c.
rainfall.
d.
temperature.
 

 28. 

Which is a biotic factor that affects the size of a population in a specific ecosystem?
a.
average temperature of the ecosystem
b.
type of soil in the ecosystem
c.
number and kinds of predators in the ecosystem
d.
concentration of oxygen in the ecosystem
 

 29. 

During a long period when there is no rainfall, a mountain lion may temporarily leave its usual hunting territory to drink from a farm pond. This behavior is due to
a.
its need to find different foods to eat.
b.
the change in an abiotic factor in its environment.
c.
its need to find a new habitat.
d.
the change in a biotic factor in its environment.
 

 30. 

Which is an example of how biotic and abiotic factors interact?
a.
Sunlight increases the temperature of pond water.
b.
Water and soil mix together to make mud.
c.
Tree roots split apart rocks in the ground.
d.
Humidity in the air forms fog in a valley.
 

 31. 

What is at the base of all ecological pyramids?
a.
consumers
b.
decomposers
c.
producers
d.
scavengers
 

 32. 

Which of the following is a food chain in the food web shown in Figure 3–4?
a.
tree, rabbit, hawk, snake
b.
grass, grasshopper, snake, hawk
c.
grass, caterpillar, robin, hawk
d.
tree, deer, mountain lion, fox
 

Short Answer
 
 
nar001-1.jpg

Figure 3–1
 

 33. 

Using Figure 3–1, explain the relationship between sharks and the sun.
 

 34. 

Why are decomposers the final consumers in every food chain?
 
 
nar004-1.jpg
Figure 3–6
 

 35. 

Identify the biotic and abiotic factors in Figure 3–6.
 

Other
 
 
nar005-1.jpg

Figure 3–8
 

 36. 

Apply Concepts Figure 3–8 is an example of which method used to study ecology?
 

 37. 

Infer Figure 3–8 shows a food web arranged into trophic levels. How many energy-transferring steps away from the sun is the deer? How do you know?
 

 38. 

Infer In what way does the food web in Figure 3–8 show part of an ecosystem? What parts are not shown?
 

 39. 

Interpret Visuals In Figure 3–8, how many first-level consumers are there for each producer?
 

 40. 

Interpret Visuals Which population in Figure 3–8 would be the most directly affected if the farmer in the area decided not to plant corn? Explain your answer.
 

Essay
 

 41. 

Describe the two sources of energy that fuel life on Earth, and explain how they do so.
 

 42. 

How does a food web differ from a food chain?
 

 43. 

How do carnivores, herbivores, omnivores, and scavengers differ in the way they obtain food? Give two examples of each type of consumer.
 

 44. 

Describe the movement of water through the water cycle, starting with water in oceans and lakes.
 



 
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